30 тем по англійській мові
About my favourite English writer
Charles Dickens was an English novelist and one of the most popular writers in the history of literature. In his enormous body of works, Dickens combined masterly storytelling, humour, pathos, and irony with sharp social criticism and acute observation of people and places, both real and imagined.
Dickens was born February 7, 1812, in Portsmouth and spent most of his childhood in London and Kent, both of which appear frequently in his novels. He started school at the age of nine, but his education was interrupted when his father was imprisoned for debt in 1824. The boy was then forced to support himself by working in a shoe-polish factory. From 1824 to 1826, Dickens again attended school. For the most part, however, he was self-educated. Among his favourite books were those by such great 18th-century novelists as Henry Fielding and Tobias Smollett, and their influence can be discerned in Dickens's own novels. In 1827 Dickens took a job as a legal clerk.
In December 1833 Dickens published the first of a series of original descriptive sketches of daily life in London, using the pseudonym Boz. The success of this first novel The Pickwick Papers made Dickens famous.
Dickens subsequently maintained his fame with a constant stream of novels. A man of enormous energy and wide talents, he also engaged in many other activities. He edited the weekly periodicals Household Words (1850-1859) and All the Year Round (1859-1870), composed the travel books American Notes (1842) and Pictures from Italy (1846), administered charitable organisations, and pressed for many social reforms. In 1843 he published A Christmas Carol, an ever-popular children's story.
Incompatibility and Dickens's relations with a young actress, Ellen Ternan, led to his separation from his wife in 1858, after the marriage had produced ten children. He suffered a fatal stroke on June 9, 1870, and was buried in Westminster Abbey five days later.
He made a valuable contribution to world literature, he wrote “The Pickwick Papers”, “Bleak House”, “Oliver Twist”, “Dombey and Son” and other novels and stories.
*About myself and my family
First of all, let me introduce myself. My name is Sergey. My full name is Kashpirovsky Sergey Vasilevish. I’m 17 years old. I was born in the family of an economist and an engineer.
My family is small. There are only three of us. I always delighted to have somebody to share my ideas with, to discuss things and the like, but it happens that sometimes I crave for loneliness to think about my problems, my mistakes and to look though my life.
I should like to begin with the oldest in the family – my farther. He is the head of it. He is a very hard-working person. And there’s a very good feature of his: if he starts doing something he is sure to do it up to the end. His favorite occupation is reading and watching TV. He is true father who devotes much time of his to bringing us up properly. He is always ready to come to our rescue. We highly appreciate this.
My mother is a nice looking woman of about 40. She isn’t tall, rather slim. The thing that catches your eye when you look at her is her charming smile. She is very easy to deal with. No wonder that she has got many friends. She is on good terms with our neighbours. When my mother is at home it seems the house is full of sunshine, jokes and laughter. She doesn’t like to lecture on people. That’s something I like very much about her. Thanks to our mother our family is very friendly, she does her best to make every member of the family feel happy and is always happy herself.
And mow I want to speak some sentences about myself. When I was 7, I went to school. I’m doing well at school. I’m especially good at history but I also cope with the rest of the subjects. And now I am a student of Donetsk Lyceum and in few days I’ll leave lyceum.
Last year I often wondered what I would be in future, what sphere of life I should choose. After a number of heated discussions with my parents and friends I decided to dwell my choice on history. I decided to take my entrance exams to the History department of Donetsk State University because I want to know History perfectly well. I think knowledge of history and foreign languages are necessary for my future job. I’m very sociable and it would be a pleasure for me to mix with many interesting people, to find out many new things, to become acquainted with different cultures of other nations of the world.
*Critique on the ‘Webworld’ article by Yevgen Groza
The Internet is becoming more and more popular. Its positive and negative aspects have been actively discussed among network users as well as in the mass media. The ‘Webworld’ essay by Kirsten Archer gives a brief and thorough overview of the latest achievements of the modern technology. The essay was written to be presented at a university challenge which was aimed to encourage critical thinking about new technologies. The fact that this article received a distinction should be a good recommendation to anyone interested in the issue. ‘Webworld’ is worth to read by either experienced web-user or a person who has never seen a computer.
At the beginning the author takes a look at the history of the Internet and elementary principles of its functioning. The main idea, which will also reappear later, is that the Internet is decentralised and thus the society only is responsible for anything that happens in the virtual world. A lot of attention is paid to such conveniences of the network as e-mail or newsgroups. The understanding of the nature of World Wide Web is very helpful, especially for an inexperienced reader.
Along with benefits of the net the author also states some negative points. Wide distribution of pornography via the network is known to every user. However, it is impossible to censor the Web. Thus, everybody has to be responsible for the content of Internet pages. Copyright problem is another negative point of the Internet expansion. As the author stresses, any text or image published on the Web can be reproduced many times without statement of intellectual property. Though this problem still does not have a global solution, the author suggests that everybody is responsible for proper use of the network since the Internet cannot be centrally regulated.
One of the best points of the essay is that it is written in an easily readable manner, almost without specific terminology. An inexperienced person or a beginner user of World Wide Web will find here a description of all of the benefits of the Internet – the electronic mailing system, on-line libraries, chat and newsgroups. Another interesting point of the text is the discussion of the new subculture – the ‘web-world’, which, according to the author, has no prejudices between racial groups and different sexes. However, being very optimistic about the Internet the author sometimes uses doubtful argumentation. For instance, she is stating as a fact that many people found their true love using the network. Probably, a sentence like this needs some statistics to be proved.
There is also another suggestion that in the near time it will be possible to remove the language barrier between the American Internet and the rest of the world. At present, translating software is not effective enough to produce a readable text. These programs can be used only for word-to-word translations. Another question is whether the language barrier needs to be removed. Probably after the barrier no longer exists the American culture could easily invade the rest of the world. We can already see the example of such an invasion on TV outside the United States.
Though there are certain drawbacks in the argumentation of the article, the author is critical in general and presents both positive and negative aspects of the Internet. Either for good or for bad, the Internet is progressing and expanding. In modern society it is impossible to avoid using modern technologies like World Wide Web. The text is worth to be read by anyone who is interested in the latest technological achievements.
Donetsk is one of the biggest regional centers of Ukraine. Its area is 381 square kilometers. The population of Donetsk is more than one million but at the end of the 19th century less than 30 thousand people lived and worked in a small settlement called Yusovka. The city was founded in 1869 in the place of kazak’s settlements. The beginning to the city was given by coal mines and metallurgical plant of Novorossijskaya company.
And now Donetsk is one of the largest industrial centers of Ukraine with such highly developed branches of industry as coal, metallurgy and machine building. Coal industry is the leading branch of industry in the city. There are 150 industrial enterprises and unions in Donetsk. One sixth of all the production of the Donetsk region is produced in the city.
Donetsk is the city of parks and gardens; it is also famous for its roses, which bloom from early summer till late autumn gladdening the eye of dwellers and guests of the city. It consists of 9 districts, linked with each other by tram, trolley and bus communications. Also it has developed air- and railway communications.
Nowadays the city is an important scientific and cultural center of Donetsk coal basin. There are 3 theatres, the Concert Hall, the circus, cinemas, Palaces of Culture and clubs, museums, a Picture Gallery and Planetarium. Besides, there are architectural monuments of local importance, of sculpture and history, and memorial places. Thanks to its remarkable architecture we have many places of interest in the city: Artyoma street, Lenin Square, the Recreation parks etc.
The inhabitants of Donetsk have places for rest after hard day. At their service there are Central Park of Culture and Rest, and branches of it – Lenin’s Komsomol Park and Sherbakov Park. In the outskirts of city there are Donetsk Botanical Gardens
Though Donetsk looks gloomy and gray in winter, as does every large industrial center, a lot of greenery, beautiful buildings, the Kalmius and numerous lakes make the city wonderful in spring and in summer.
*Life of youth in Great Britain
The home is the central focus of most people’s lives in Britain, particularly for those who are still attending school. The majority relies upon their home environment as a place of security and upon their parents as the main providers of food, money and other necessary amenities for life, as well as general advice. Young people spend a lot of their leisure time in the home with other members of their family or with friends.
After the home, school is the main social environment where children not only receive their formal education but also develop their identities within peer groups. All schoolchildren in Great Britain are encouraged to take up activities, which complement their academic and vocational education and help to identify their individual talents, such as sports, drama, music and creative pursuits. Many of these form part of school curricula.
The Youth Service in Britain also promotes the personal development and informal social education of young people aged 11-25. A recent survey estimated that nearly 6 million young people in this age group are either current or past participants in the Service.
Youth clubs and centres are the most common types of Youth Service provision. They encourage their members to participate in sport, cultural and creative activities, and community service.
Many foundations and trusts provide finance for activities, which develop the latent talents of Britain’s youth. The Prince’s Trust and the Royal Jubilee Trust, for example, help individuals and organisations active in youth-oriented projects related to urban deprivation, unemployment and young offending.
The topic I am going to speak about is London. From the geography lessons you know that East meets West in the Greenwich meridian. It is in London.
London, one of the world's biggest cities, situated on the river Thames, is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the residence of British sovereign. London is a great industrial and cultural center with the population of more than seven million people.
London consists of four main districts, which differ from each other. These are the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.
The City is small in area but it is the business center of London. Many banks and offices are situated there. The heart of City is the Stock Exchange.
Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It is the administrative center. The Houses of Parliament are there. It is a beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It is a very beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great statesmen, scientists are in the Abbey. There is Trafalgar Square where the famous Nelson Column stands as the memory about Nelson’s great victory. It is interesting to know that the column is situated in the geographical center of the city. This square is always open for public meetings and demonstrations.
To the west of Westminster is the West End. Here we can find most of the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, and concert halls. Piccadilli Circus is the heart of London’s West End. In the West End there are wide streets with beautiful houses and many parks, gardens and squares.
To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of the capital. There are no parks or gardens in East End and you can't see many fine houses there. Most of the plants and factories are situated there.
Speaking about London, you must keep in mind that it is the city of contrasts.
*My attitude towards studying a foreign language
A person who has a good command of a foreign language fells at ease not only in his native country but abroad, too, if he finds himself there. I know this on my first hand. Here is a familiar quotation of Johnson’s: “Language is the dress of thought”, and the knowledge of two or more languages will help us to “dress” our thoughts better still.
Learning foreign languages is especially important nowadays. Some people learn foreign languages because they need them in their work others travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby.
Every year thousands of people from our country go to different countries as tourists or to work. They can not go without knowing the language of the country they are going to.
English is one of the world languages. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sports. It is also the major language of diplomacy. Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in English, most of the world’s mail and telephone calls are in English. Half of the world’s scientific literature is written in English. English is spoken by more than 350 million people. It is the official language of the UK, the USA, of Australia and New Zealand, it is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the South Africa. Millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. In our country English is very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges and universities.
Learning English is not an easy thing. It is a long process and takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated person. I want to know English because it’s interesting for me to know foreign countries, their cultures and tradition. English will be of great use in my future profession connected with computers.
I should like to begin my talk with a familiar quotation. It is a pity I don’t know whom it belongs to. It runs as follows: “friendship is the wine of life”. So to have a true devoted friend is a great luck.
I have a lot of friends. Some of them are my schoolmates, some are my neighbours and I have some whom I met a few years ago. But my close friend is Oksana. She is 16. Oksana is tall and pretty-looking girl. Her peaches and cream complexion suits her dark brown eyes. She has a nice nose that together with her wonderful hair-do and charming smile makes her face beautiful. She is a very fashionable girl. Oksana has a queenly carriage and the clothes she wears always look great and beautiful. But she is an attractive girl not only by her appearance, but also by her character and her inner world, because she is well bred, jolly and kind. She does well at school.
It is very interesting to speak with her, especially when she has fallen into the habit of reading a lot. She has read a lot of books and it doesn’t matter for her what kind of book it is. She enjoys them all and the only thing that matters for her is that book shouldn’t be dull but interesting. She says that the books are of great help at any time and they always must be at hand. Her idea is that it’s more convenient to have a library of her own comprising lots of books than to try keeping everything in her head.
I don’t like people who are bored at everything and who never make the slightest effort to be pleasant. That’s why my friend is Oksana, the most amusing and cheerful person in the world. She is a sunny soul by nature and always takes the slightest excuse to be amused and to raise the spirits of the other people around her.
Oksana and I are good friends. I enjoy her company immensely. I highly appreciate our friendship. I think there are not many people, whom I’m so attached to. We are always ready to help and support each other and try not to quarrel. But when sometimes it comes to quarrelling we try to make it up at once. I think that our friendship is very firm and I’ve got a friend for all my life.
*My Future Profession
The right choice of profession is very important for the future of any young man. Sooner or later everyone has to make this choice.
My favourite subjects at school were English, Literature and History. I think my teachers were quite happy with my work that’s why they invited me to participate in contests in different subjects. I’m considered to be best at Literatures, Ukrainian, English, History, Computer Studies though I specialised in history, since history was not only my passion but also a serious interest in life because I wanted to connect my knowledge of history and English with my future profession. I like to spend much time on history. I enjoy researching some historical topics.
So as far as I’m concerned I had no dilemma in choosing my occupation. I decided to take my entrance exams to the History department of Donetsk State University because I want to know history perfectly well. I think knowledge of history and foreign languages are necessary for my future profession. I have to admit that I’m very sociable by nature and it would be a pleasure for me to mix with many interesting people, to find out many new things, to become acquainted with different cultures of other nations of the world. Now I am a student of first course of historical department. It is pity but I don’t know about my future profession. May be I’ll come in politic or business, may be I will write books or do something else. I want to be useful for our country and make a valuable contribution to its development.
I have some free time not only on Sundays and on my holidays, but also on weekdays. And as soon as I have a spare minute, I devote it to my hobbies. Tastes differ. Different people like different things, different people have different hobbies. I have four hobbies, so to speak. They are reading, listening to music, computer and going in for sports.
As for reading, I enjoy it very much. And it doesn’t matter what kind of book it is. It can be a collection of short stories, an interesting novel or a book of poems. I equally enjoy them all. But there’s one thing that matters. When I choose a book for reading, it shouldn’t be dull but interesting. But I highly appreciate only those books that can teach me something or can make me think about the problem, raised in the book.
Speaking about music I can’t help saying that music is an essential part of my daily life. I live with music. I’m reading, doing homework, morning exercises, and work about the house to music. I’m fond of modern music and I can’t point out one certain style of music, I enjoy them all, including pop, rock, metal, techno, rave, rap, hip-hop and others. I’m also fond of different ballads because they are very melodious and tender.
In my daily life I use computer technologies that help me to be in course of all events in the world thanks for Internet. Computer helps me to make reports and homework. I write small computer programs, collection CD, when I have free time I like discover Internet.
Besides, I go in for sports. I go to the swimming pool twice a week, but I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. I also attended volleyball, basketball and table tennis sections. As for me sport helps me to keep fit and always to be in good shape. I can’t imagine my life without sport.
So, I think that my leisure time is quite variable. I’m not bored and always have a good mood.
I am a student of Donetsk lyceum, which is situated in the center of the town, and it is a little part of Donetsk State University. Lyceum is a new type of special school. It was established in 1990. Every boy and girl having 9-year schooling and a good command of mathematics, physics, foreign language, history and other subjects may enter the lyceum. Two years ago I successfully passed examinations and entered the lyceum to the history department. By the way, there are 8 departments in our lyceum. They are biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, Ukrainian, history, Russian, Nova-Greek departments. I can say that Donetsk Lyceum uses the large popularity among the boys and girls who the 9th forms, because our classes and lectures are held by highly qualified teachers and professors from the University. That is why in our Lyceum is the creative atmosphere. Peoples write scientific works and reports. It promotes the development of high level of knowledge. That is why our students constantly take firsts places in different scientific congresses. There is the club Polyglot in our lyceum. Every year the open tournament of polyglots takes place there. A lot of pupils from schools come to it but the victory is always on the side of our pupils. There is a tradition in our lyceum to provide different intellectual competitions. This year we celebrate 10 years anniversary from the date of its foundation. As for me, this two years of my studying in Lyceum were very useful for me thanks to friendship atmosphere with my classmates and teachers. I hope that a lot of knowledge, which I took at lyceum, will be of great use in my life. And I very glad to be graduate of 2000 year.
*My teacher of English
Knowledge of foreign languages nowadays helps to promote cultural, educational and technical cooperation among nations. At present English is the most important of the world’s languages. In number of speakers it ranks second. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is evidence of its importance. That is why millions of people learn English as a second language. I began study English