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УДК 32

УДК 32.01

Крушинський Б., Партемор Е.

THE PROGRESS OF THE ISAF MISSION IN AFGHANISTAN AND THE NEW WAY TO EFFECTIVE STRATEGY (Прогрес міжнародних сил сприяння безпеці (ISAF) у Афганістані і новий шлях до ефективної стратегії)

Після терористичних атак 11 вересня 2001 у Нью-Йорку та Вашингтоні, округ Колумбія, американські сили увійшли до Афганістану та проголосили «глобальну війну з тероризмом». Війна триває вісім років, і ніщо не передвіщає її закінчення. Здійснюючи доктрину дій проти партизанів, оперативна організація й стратегія в Афганістані повільно розвивається. Успіхи військової операції пов'язані не тільки з поразкою Талібану або воюючих сторін Аль-Каїди, але й з підтримкою від місцевого населення, побудовою інфраструктури, навчальних афганських сил безпеки, відновленням сільського господарства, створенням умов для демократії й верховенства закону. Командуючі НАТО й політичні діячі недавно просили більше військ і підтримки. Вони визнають, що вони в цей час переживають критичний момент у війні.

Ключові слова: Афганська Національна Армія, Аль-Каїда, військовий конфлікт, Міжнародні сили сприяння безпеці.

После террористических атак 11 сентября 2001 в Нью-Йорке и Вашингтоне, округ Колумбия, американские силы вторглись в Афганистан и возвестили «Глобальную войну с терроризмом». Продлившись восемь лет, война в Афганистане не подходит к концу. Осуществляя недавно развитую доктрину действий против партизан, оперативная организация и стратегия в Афганистане медленно развивается. Успехи военной операции связаны не только с поражением Талибана или воюющих сторон Аль-Каиды, но и с развивающейся поддержкой от местного населения, построением инфраструктуры, учебных афганских сил безопасности, восстановлением сельского хозяйства, созданием условий для демократии и верховенства закона. Командующие НАТО и политические деятели недавно просили больше войск и поддержки. Они признают, что они в настоящее время переживают критический момент в войне.

Ключевые слова: Афганская Национальная Армия, Аль-Каида, Военные Силы Международной безопасности, военный конфликт.

Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC, American forces invaded Afghanistan and ushered in the «Global War on Terrorism.» Having lasted eight years and claimed thousands of lives, the war in Afghanistan shows no signs of slowing. NATO must continue to adapt its strategy and resourcing in Afghanistan, identify clear goals and milestones, and definitively tailor ISAF's mission to defeat a constantly evolving extremist enemy. Drawing on their initial experiences, the US-led coalition slowly began to define the tactics, ideas, and methods of asymmetric warfare. Implementing newly developed counterinsurgency doctrine, and drawing on successes from Iraq, task organization and strategy in Afghanistan slowly evolved. Success in Afghanistan derives not only from defeating Taliban or Al Qaeda combatants in battle, but from developing support from the local population, building infrastructure, training Afghan security forces, re-establishing agriculture not reliant on the drug trade, and fostering an environment of democracy and the rule of law. NATO commanders and

politicians have recently requested more troops and support. They recognize that they currently face a critical moment in the war, and they understand the necessary ingredients for victory. Their actions in implementing the strategic, operational, and tactical pieces of this complex puzzle will set ISAF either on the path to success, or to potential failure.

Key words: Afghan National Army, Al Qaeda, Counter-insurgency, International Security Assistance Force.

In 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan, where they found an Al Qaeda stronghold protected by the ruling Taliban government. This decision resulted from the 11 September 2001 attack by this terrorist organization on the United States. US President George W. Bush announced the beginning of the «Global War on Terror and began construction of a coalition. Analysts, along with the President and his administration acknowledged that this war would be long lasting. President Bush asserted that this conflict would be different than previous wars, with a different opponent, and a lack of defined battlefields and beach-heads in the traditional sense [1].

In accordance with Article 5 of The North Atlantic Treaty, adopted 4 April 1949 in Washington:

«The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.»

NATO countries gave the United States absolute support in the fight against Al Qaeda terrorists [2].

The Soviet army's experiences in Afghanistan from 1979-1989 and the initial military operations of the Northern Alliance and US army in 2001 heralded the beginning of this new type of conflict-asymmetric warfare of the 21st century [3]. Under the protection of the Taliban, Al Qaeda worked secretly and had become a well-organized terrorist organization. The situation, therefore, required modified military doctrine and a new mindset toward revised strategy and tactics [4]. However, US and NATO forces had little experience in fighting in such conditions, had to learn from their mistakes, and the elaboration of the new doctrine took time.

After suppressing the Taliban state in Afghanistan, the US-led coalition implemented a multilevel program of reconstruction within the country. Without this rebuilding, the Taliban or an Al Qaeda backed regime could likely regain influence. The first editorials on this subject appeared as early as September 2001 [5]. Absolutely necessary, however, was the establishment of internationally recognized legal authority within the state. This occurred officially after the Bonn Conference (5 December 2001) [6] and by 22 December 2001 Hamid Karzai assumed office as Prime Minister and NATO forces within Afghanistan received UN mandate to continue the protection and stabilization of the country [7].

The first International Security Assistance Force (ISAF I) consisted of 5,000 soldiers based in Kabul by December 2001. This marked the beginning of NATO's official commitment into the conflict. Major General John McColl of the British Army commanded ISAF I until July 2002 [8].

Beginning in June 2002, command of the mission (now ISAF II) transitioned to Turkey on the basis of UN resolution 1413 (2002), and Turkish Major General Hilmi Akin Zorlu commanded the mission until January 2003. Simultaneously, NATO confirmed the support of Germany and the Netherlands for the mission. Lieutenant General Norbert Van Heyst of the German Army took command of ISAF III, holding this office from January to August 2003 [9].

A key development came on 15 April 2003 with the NATO decision affecting authority over the international peacekeeping force in Afghanistan on the basis of UN resolution 1386 (20 December 2001). Additionally, the Security Council authorized ISAF to operate forces throughout the area of Afghanistan [10].

In summer 2003, the commander of ISAF IV was again a German officer, Lieutenant General Gotz Gliemeroth. In December 2003, NATO took command of the Provincial Reconstruction Group in Qunduz from Germany in what became an enlargement of the war from simple military action against the Taliban to the fight for the hearts and minds of the citizens of Afghanistan. The following months yielded great changes for Afghan statehood, and on 7 October 2004, Hamid Karzai won the first democratic presidential election.

From April 2003 to August 2004, Canadian Lieutenant General Rick Hillier commanded ISAF V. In 2005, during ISAF VI, under the command of French General Jean-Louis Py, NATO decided to broaden activity in western Afghanistan [11].

In connection with the upcoming parliamentary election in 2005, NATO decided to increase military operations in the southern provinces as well. During ISAF VII, lead by Turkish General Ethem Erdagi, the first parliamentary election in 30 years took place on 18 September 2005.

Italian General Mauro Del Vechio commanded ISAF VIII during which defense ministers of the NATO states attended a conference in London to decide on safety measures and the reform of the Afghan defense system. From this conference came «Building On Success, the London Conference on Afghanistan, the Afghan Compact.» This was a breakthrough in reference to the close coordination between ISAF forces and the US Army working within the framework of Combined Forces Command- Afghanistan [12].

British General David Richards commanded ISAF IX beginning in June 2006. Based on the difficulties of earlier increases to the scope of activity in southern Afghanistan, on 8 June 2006, the 37 defense ministers of the NATO states met regarding ISAF. They unanimously offered support, and by the end of June, plans were put into effect, widening the activities of the ISAF contingent in the six southern provinces [13].

The direction and condition of the collaboration between NATO and the government of the Islamic Afghan Republic were defined in the 6 September 2006 declaration «Framework for Enduring Cooperation and Partnership.» In this document, NATO announced reforms of the defense system in Afghanistan, construction of defensive institutions, and the cooperation between the Afghan National Army (ANA) and NATO forces. In October 2006, ISAF took command of international forces in

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