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The community college system plays a distinct role in Canada's higher education sector. It was purposefully created as an instrument of public policy to provide education that directly responds to the social and economic development needs of Canadian communities. Given the uniquely decentralized nature of Canadian higher education policy, community colleges have historically been able to adapt their programming and evolve as the socio-economic needs within Canadian communities have changed. This evolution continues today as the impacts of globalization increasingly permeate Canadian communities and the higher education sector. This paper provides an analysis of Canada's decentralized college system and its effectiveness in promoting socio-economic development. It begins with a broad overview of the history of the Canadian community college system and defines its core characteristics. The contributions made by community colleges to socio-economic development in Canada are identified, as are the challenges that have arisen in an increasingly globalized higher education landscape. The paper concludes with some suggestions, based on the Canadian experience, for other national higher education systems undergoing or contemplating reform.

History of the Canadian Community College System

The community college system in Canada is relatively new, dating to its creation in the 1960s. Unlike the university system, it did not gradually emerge through an evolutionary or organic process. Rather, the college system was purposefully and explicitly created by government to promote social and economic development in response to the socioeconomic needs of the 1960s (Gallagher & Dennison 1995; Quint-Rapoport 2006). Colleges were to act as instruments of public policy in contrast to the autonomy that Canadian universities hold (Dunlop 1998; Dennison & Levin 1988). This deliberate approach to the creation of the college system was driven by the convergence of three factors evident in the early 1960s (Gallagher & Dennison 1995):

The influence of human capital theory. Governments were increasingly convinced that the key to economic growth was through investing in people.

Increased higher education demand. Social scientists predicted that a huge increase in demand for higher education was coming.

The link between economic development and technical skills. Popular belief in Canada increasingly linked prosperity to the technical skills of the workforce.

Driven by these converging factors, the Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act (TVTA) was passed by the federal government in 1960. The TVTA provided significant funding for training that addressed the socio-economic development needs of Canadian communities. With the TVTA as the impetus, Canada's provincial governments created individual provincial community college systems through a cost-sharing formula with the federal government.

This combined role of the federal and provincial governments is key to understanding the nature of the community college system and the larger higher education sector in Canada. Education in Canada has been shaped by the constitutionally entrenched division of powers between the federal and provincial governments and how this division of powers influences their ongoing relationship. While the federal government has spending power over areas of national interest indirectly related to higher education, such as the national economy and human resource development, the 10 provincial governments have sole jurisdiction over education in their respective provinces. The federal government therefore is limited in its influence over the education sector, other than through how it provides funding (Fisher et al. 2005). Jones (2006: 628) has outlined the rather unique situation to which this has led: "Canada may be the only nation in the developed world that has never had a national university or higher education act, or even a [federal] government minister assigned responsibility for higher education."

Given the dominant role of provinces in higher education, the creation in the 1960s of separate provincial community college systems through the TVTA's infusion of federal money meant multiple college models emerged. Perhaps the defining characteristic of the college system in Canada is the lack of a single national model. Diversity and differentiation are key characteristics, with relatively few universally comparable features across provinces (Dennison 1995a). The various provincial models that arose were designed to operate in the context of the distinct social, economic, cultural and educational characteristics of each province (Dennison & Levin 1988: 60). Each model was therefore tied to the uniqueness of its respective province or region.

From 1965 - 1975, five different models emerged across Canada (Gallagher & Dennison 1995). In the provinces of Ontario, where universities are numerous and dispersed, and Prince Edward Island, where the sole university is accessible given the province's small size, colleges were created to provide a separate and distinct higher education option for young people not eligible for university admission. Colleges provided a range of employment-focused programs at the apprenticeship, certificate and diploma levels, completely segregated from university level education. These colleges also served as adult education centres for people in the workforce interested in retraining, as well as more general education centres for non-career focused community education that addressed social and citizenship needs.

A significantly different model emerged in western Canada. Unlike Ontario and Prince Edward Island, the dispersed populations of the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia had much less access to the few universities located in their large urban centres. Colleges were therefore developed to provide not only technical/vocational training, but university transfer programming as well. This provided greater access to university education through the college system, unlike the university and college systems in Ontario and Prince Edward Island that were purposefully kept distinct. Both Alberta and British Columbia also established specialized institutes of technology in addition to their community colleges.

In the provinces of Manitoba, New Brunswick and Newfoundland, as well as the territories of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, a third model arose that emphasized technical/vocational education with an emphasis on short term work-entry programs. This reflected the need within these provinces to address high unemployment rates. Adult education programs also held a central place in these provincial systems. As these systems evolved, a greater variety of programming was gradually incorporated, including university transfer programs.

A unique fourth model emerged in the province of Saskatchewan. The distinct rural/urban complexion of the province - numerous, sparsely populated rural regions and a few growing urban centres - led to a two-pronged system. In urban centres requiring technical and industrial skills, technical institutes were created to provide vocational and technical education. In rural areas, a "community college without walls" was established, where colleges served as brokers of education programming instead of as providers. As such, rural colleges' primary role was to arrange for the delivery by other institutions or agencies of educational programs that responded to locally articulated education demands. As Saskatchewan's system evolved, this brokerage model became less pronounced as rural colleges increasingly began to provide programming in addition to brokering it.

The final model that developed between 1965 and 1975 was in Quebec. All students in Quebec who want to pursue higher education must attend a Quebec college, or CEGEP. There are two streams within the CEGEP model. The first stream provides two years of pre-university education for those students moving on to university study. The second stream provides three years of technical education for those wishing to enter the workforce immediately after college. Unlike other provinces in Canada, the Quebec college model did not involve the provision of vocational education, which was provided in secondary schools, nor did it require students to pay tuition. The Quebec model was also more centralized than other provincial models. In other provinces, local boards were given governance responsibilities over colleges. In Quebec, partially elected institutional boards play some role in governance, but the province maintains significant responsibility of the sector.

From the 1960s through the early 1980s, these diverse provincial models enjoyed an enormous amount of success as instruments of social and economic development (Gallagher and Day 2001: 652; Gallagher 1987). Their distinct provincial features allowed them to deliver education and training that was responsive to the unique social and economic needs in each province. New economic and fiscal conditions began to emerge, however, that impacted all of the provincial college systems. By 1977, the nature of college funding began to change. Funding the provincial college systems through a process of cost sharing between the federal and provincial governments, as set out in the TVTA, was ended. The federal government's new Established Programs Financing Act (EPF) provided a system of unconditional block money transfers by the federal government to the provinces for higher education and health. Cost sharing with the provinces was abandoned. Thirty-two percent of EPF funding was meant to be spent on higher education and 68% on health, although provinces were not required to allocate the funds in those proportions. The federal government intended EPF funding to promote equal quality education throughout all the provinces while maintaining the provinces' jurisdiction over education.

Economic changes in Canada also began to emerge. These changes generated new and different community needs that required a response from the provincial college systems (Skolnik 2004). Canada experienced a long-term economic recession beginning in

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